Developmental Milestones 2 to 5 Year Olds

 

2 - 5岁 儿 童 发 展 里 程 碑

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   Developmental Milestones: 2 Year Olds

 

What are some of the developmental milestones my child should reach by two years of age?

Your baby enters her second year and becomes a toddler, crawling vigorously, starting to walk, even talking a little. Exploring the boundaries established by your rules and her own physical and developmental limits will occupy much of her time for the next few years.

Here are some other milestones to look for.

Movement milestones

  • Walks alone
  • Pulls toys behind her while walking
  • Carries large toy or several toys while walking
  • Begins to run
  • Stands on tiptoe
  • Kicks a ball
  • Climbs onto and down from furniture unassisted
  • Walks up and down stairs holding on to support

Milestones in hand and finger skills

  • Scribbles spontaneously
  • Turns over container to pour out contents
  • Builds tower of four blocks or more
  • Might use one hand more frequently than the other

Language milestones

  • Points to object or picture when it’s named for him
  • Recognizes names of familiar people, objects, and body parts
  • Says several single words (by fifteen to eighteen months)
  • Uses simple phrases (by eighteen to twenty-four months)
  • Uses two- to four-word sentences
  • Follows simple instructions
  • Repeats words overheard in conversation

Cognitive milestones

  • Finds objects even when hidden under two or three covers
  • Begins to sort by shapes and colors
  • Begins make-believe play

Social and emotional milestones

  • Imitates behavior of others, especially adults and older children
  • Increasingly aware of herself as separate from others
  • Increasingly enthusiastic about company of other children
  • Demonstrates increasing independence
  • Begins to show defiant behavior
  • Increasing episodes of separation anxiety toward midyear, then they fade

 

Developmental health watch

Because each child develops at his own particular pace, it’s impossible to tell exactly when yours will perfect a given skill. The developmental milestones will give you a general idea of the changes you can expect as your child gets older, but don’t be alarmed if he takes a slightly different course. Alert your pediatrician, however, if he displays any of the following signs of possible developmental delay for this age range.

  • Cannot walk by eighteen months
  • Fails to develop a mature heel-toe walking pattern after several months of walking, or walks exclusively on his toes
  • Does not speak at least fifteen words by eighteen months
  • Does not use two-word sentences by age two
  • Does not seem to know the function of common household objects (brush, telephone, bell, fork, spoon) by fifteen months
  • Does not imitate actions or words by the end of this period
  • Does not follow simple instructions by age two
  • Cannot push a wheeled toy by age two

 

 

   Developmental Milestones: 3 to 4 Year Olds

 

What are some of the developmental milestones my child should reach by three to four years of age?

With your child’s third birthday, the “terrible twos” are officially over and the “magic years” of three and four begin—a time when your child’s world will be dominated by fantasy and vivid imagination. During the next two years, he’ll mature in many areas.

Here are some milestones to look for.

Movement milestones

  • Hops and stands on one foot up to five seconds
  • Goes upstairs and downstairs without support
  • Kicks ball forward
  • Throws ball overhand
  • Catches bounced ball most of the time
  • Moves forward and backward with agility

Milestones in hand and finger skills

  • Copies square shapes
  • Draws a person with two to four body parts
  • Uses scissors
  • Draws circles and squares
  • Begins to copy some capital letters

Language milestones

  • Understands the concepts of “same” and “different”
  • Has mastered some basic rules of grammar
  • Speaks in sentences of five to six words
  • Speaks clearly enough for strangers to understand
  • Tells stories

Cognitive milestones

  • Correctly names some colors
  • Understands the concept of counting and may know a few numbers
  • Approaches problems from a single point of view
  • Begins to have a clearer sense of time
  • Follows three-part commands
  • Recalls parts of a story
  • Understands the concept of same/different
  • Engages in fantasy play

Social and emotional milestones

  • Interested in new experiences
  • Cooperates with other children
  • Plays “Mom” or “Dad”
  • Increasingly inventive in fantasy play
  • Dresses and undresses
  • Negotiates solutions to conflicts
  • More independent
  • Imagines that many unfamiliar images may be “monsters”
  • Views self as a whole person involving body, mind, and feelings
  • Often cannot distinguish between fantasy and reality

 

Developmental health watch

Because each child develops in his own particular manner, it’s impossible to tell exactly when or how he’ll perfect a given skill. The developmental milestones listed in this book will give you a general idea of the changes you can expect as your child gets older, but don’t be alarmed if his development takes a slightly different course. Alert your pediatrician, however, if your child displays any of the following signs of possible developmental delay for this age range.

  • Cannot throw a ball overhand
  • Cannot jump in place
  • Cannot ride a tricycle
  • Cannot grasp a crayon between thumb and fingers
  • Has difficulty scribbling
  • Cannot stack four blocks
  • Still clings or cries whenever his parents leave him
  • Shows no interest in interactive games
  • Ignores other children
  • Doesn’t respond to people outside the family
  • Doesn’t engage in fantasy play
  • Resists dressing, sleeping, using the toilet
  • Lashes out without any self-control when angry or upset
  • Cannot copy a circle
  • Doesn’t use sentences of more than three words
  • Doesn’t use “me” and “you” appropriately

 

 

    Developmental Milestones: 4 to 5 Year Olds

 

What are some of the developmental milestones my child should reach by four to five years of age?

Before you know it, the somewhat calm child of three becomes a dynamo of energy, drive, bossiness, belligerence, and generally out-of-bounds behavior. You may be reminded of the earlier trials and tribulations you went through when he was two. Also obvious during this time is the tremendous spurt of imaginative ideas that spring from children’s minds and mouths. All of this behavior and thinking will help your youngster build a secure foundation as he emerges into the world of kindergarten.

Here are some other milestones to look for.

Movement milestones

  • Stands on one foot for ten seconds or longer
  • Hops, somersaults
  • Swings, climbs
  • May be able to skip

Milestones in hand and finger skills

  • Copies triangle and other geometric patterns
  • Draws person with body
  • Prints some letters
  • Dresses and undresses without assistance
  • Uses fork, spoon, and (sometimes) a table knife
  • Usually cares for own toilet needs

Language milestones

  • Recalls part of a story
  • Speaks sentences of more than five words
  • Uses future tense
  • Tells longer stories
  • Says name and address

Cognitive milestones

  • Can count ten or more objects
  • Correctly names at least four colors
  • Better understands the concept of time
  • Knows about things used every day in the home (money, food, appliances)

Social and emotional milestones

  • Wants to please friends
  • Wants to be like her friends
  • More likely to agree to rules
  • Likes to sing, dance, and act
  • Shows more independence and may even visit a next-door neighbor by herself
  • Aware of sexuality
  • Able to distinguish fantasy from reality
  • Sometimes demanding, sometimes eagerly cooperative

Developmental health watch

Because each child develops in her own particular manner, it’s impossible to predict exactly when or how your own preschooler will perfect a given skill. The developmental milestones listed here will give you a general idea of the changes you can expect as your child gets older, but don’t be alarmed if her development takes a slightly different course. Alert your pediatrician, however, if your child displays any of the following signs of possible developmental delay for this age range.

  • Exhibits extremely fearful or timid behavior
  • Exhibits extremely aggressive behavior
  • Is unable to separate from parents without major protest         
  • Is easily distracted and unable to concentrate on any single activity for more than five minutes
  • Shows little interest in playing with other children
  • Refuses to respond to people in general, or responds only superficially
  • Rarely uses fantasy or imitation in play
  • Seems unhappy or sad much of the time
  • Doesn’t engage in a variety of activities
  • Avoids or seems aloof with other children and adults
  • Doesn’t express a wide range of emotions
  • Has trouble eating, sleeping, or using the toilet
  • Can’t differentiate between fantasy and reality
  • Seems unusually passive
  • Cannot understand two-part commands using prepositions (“Put the cup on the table”; “Get the ball under the couch.”)
  • Can’t correctly give her first and last name
  • Doesn’t use plurals or past tense properly when speaking
  • Doesn’t talk about her daily activities and experiences
  • Cannot build a tower of six to eight blocks
  • Seems uncomfortable holding a crayon
  • Has trouble taking off her clothing
  • Cannot brush her teeth efficiently
  • Cannot wash and dry her hands

   2 - 5  岁儿童发展里程碑

 

从孩子出生开始,你看着你的孩子的成长和发展。你已经注意到他的身高和体重,当他爬,站,走,甚至当他谈到他的第一句话 - 也许他比所有的婴幼儿年的里程碑来的规范。学龄前和早期学年也富于变化。三至五岁的孩子的运动技能,语言,思维和社会发展发生了巨大变化。

这里可以向你提供知道什么是孩子成长的需要,你的孩子与其他同龄孩子是在同一轨道或提醒您潜在的问题。

 

下面是一些您的学龄前儿童的里程碑。

                                  岁 儿 童 里 程 碑


你的宝宝进入了他的2岁的那一年,成为一个蹒跚学步,大力爬行,开始走路,甚至开始说话。通过探索你的规则和她自己的身体和发育的限制建立的边界将占用她的时间在未来的几年里。

2岁的一年,许多幼儿开始呈现出更多的过家家的游戏,尤其是熟悉的场景。她可能让她的玩具娃娃睡觉或喂她小熊饼干。在2岁时,你的孩子也将更加独立和自己处理和解决问题。她会用大量的尝试和错误来掌握一项任务,她将需要很多时间来练习很多次。在这个年龄段,你的孩子将能够完成简单的拼图,并通过颜色或形状进行排序。她会作出自己的选择,所以如果可能的话请提供机会并邀请她帮忙如:把餐巾放在桌子上或用软布除尘家务等等。在今年她的语言能力发展很重要,希望听到更多的问题因为她试图去认识这个世界。在这个年龄段她会希望与其他孩子一起玩耍,但不会与他们进行太多的互动。

 

动作发展:总体动作技能
独立行走
拖着玩具行走
行走时可携带大型玩具或多个玩具
开始学会跑
可以踮着脚尖站立
踢球
可以自己在床,桌,椅等等家具爬上爬下
可以自己扶着栏杆上下楼梯

 

动作发展:优秀的动作技能
随意性的涂鸦
打开容器倒出里面的东西
用四块或更多的方块堆出城堡
一只手的使用频率比另一只手更频繁。


语言与思维发展
指出的对象或图片时,可以说出它们的名称
知道熟悉的人的名字或称呼,知道物体和身体各部位的名称
使用两到四个单词的句子
跟随简单的指示

重复听到的谈话的内容

寻找被隐藏了的事物或玩具
开始通过形状和颜色进行排序
开始玩过家家

 

社会和情感发展

模仿别人的行为,特别是成人和大龄儿童
越来越多的意识到自己会被孤立
越来越多热衷于与其他孩子的接触和合作
展现出越来越强的独立性
开始出现反抗行为
出现分离焦虑,然后会渐渐淡出

 

健康的发展时钟

 

 

因为每个孩子的发展都有他自己独特的步伐,这里不能告诉你什么时候他将完善一个给定的技能。成长里程碑会给你一个可以期望孩子渐渐长大和进步的总体思路,但如果他有稍微不同的过程请不要惊慌。

 

如果在他的年龄段显示出任何下列列出的迹象这有可能是发育迟缓,您必须马上提醒你的儿科医生。

 

• 18个月时还不会走路
在会走路几个月后不会熟练的使用正常的走路模式
• 18个月时讲话少于15
•  2 岁时不会使用两个词的句子
• 15个月时还不知道常见的家用物品(刷,电话,钟,叉,勺)的使用职能
不能模仿举止言行
•  2 岁时不会跟随简单的指示
•  2 岁时不会推轮式玩具

                                   岁 儿 童 里 程 碑

当你的孩子进入了他3岁的那一年,他将变得更加能够专注于自己的任务,不会因为他周围的事物而分心。他将开始更具创造性地思考和发展自己的逻辑推理去解决问题。在3岁时,儿童的语言能力将有很大的发展。他将变得更容易理解并开始使用至少四个单词的较长句子。这个年龄的孩子可以更好地听懂和理解故事内容,他们开始注意和理解在他们的环境中所要传达的含义。在物理上,你的3岁的孩子就能跑,更有效率的爬上爬下,可以用两只手接住大球,在这个年龄段他也应该开始踩脚蹬三轮车。他会开始与他的同龄人发展真正的友谊。

 

动作发展:总体动作技能

灵活的走路,具有几乎成人的走路风格
跑着绕过障碍物
捕捉大球和可以把球抛过头
可以独自爬上滑梯
骑三轮车
可以双脚交替着上楼梯


动作发展:优秀的动作技能

组装简单的拼图
操纵粘土和简单的手指绘画
模仿简单的形状,如十字或圆形
堆叠积木多达九个高

语言与思维发展
理解大部分的对话内容, 75 %的言论是可以理解的
在说三到五个字完整的句子
可以匹配对称的图片或物体
通过动手做和感官来学习
理解的现在快要以后”时态
开始认识原因和结果的关系

社会和情感发展
遵循简单的指示;喜欢帮助参与家庭劳动
开始认识到自己的能力 请求帮助
喜欢一个人玩,但会接近其他孩子
不合作或以及分享
能够在两件事情之间做出选择
开始注意别人的情绪和感受

 

育儿提示———3岁儿童

 

不再是一个孩子,3岁的儿童需要认识自己和他周围的世界。

在这个年龄段转换是很艰难的。提供变化的警预警,让您的孩子有时间来换挡“我们在10分钟后离开。
仪式是非常重要的。家庭日常规则和时间表为3岁的孩子提供较安全的感觉。
在日常交谈的过程中可以指出颜色和数字: 你穿的是蓝色的衣服我们做了六个蛋糕。
鼓励自主活动建立自力更生。
提供大量的感官体验学习和发展的协调 - 沙子,泥土,手指画,拼图等等。

 

                                      岁 儿 童 里 程 碑

4岁时,孩子能够更好地制定计划并完成它,所以他们的过家家游戏变得更加复杂和持续时间更长。她的语言能力会有更快的进步,她能够理解和了解并会向多方位发展。大多数4岁的孩子能数到10,并开始写一些字母,尤其是他们的名字,因为他们可以正确地更精细的动作控制和抓住铅笔。这个年龄段她开始用她的想象力并且将会动手探索,以帮助她了解事物是如何运作的。她将积极寻求新的实践和越来越能够自力更生的能力。在这一年里,孩子们可以投入更多的时间参与积极发挥像攀爬,跳跃,跳跃和疾驰,以及抛,接,踢和弹跳球技巧。

 

动作发展:总体动作技能

可以更好的控制跑步,可以开始,停止和转弯
可以翻跟头,使用一只脚跳,快速急驰
可以很容易地抓,扔,和打球
可以仅依靠一点点的帮助就可以自己刷牙,梳头,洗脸,和穿衣服


动作发展:优秀的动作技能
模仿十字形和方块形
手写一些字母
熟练地使用表格
对线切割


语言与思维发展

可以使用1500字的词汇讲比较复杂的句子( 妈妈打开门,狗跑了出来
明白一个词汇与另一个词汇的关联——如果,为什么,什么时候
通过体验和感官来继续学习
主要是明白幻想和现实之间的差异
理解数字和空间概念多,少,大,小,上,中,下,前方,后方
开始从字面上培养逻辑思维
开始可以抓住图片和符号来表达真实对象
开始识别对象之间的模式 - 圆的东西,软的东西,动物等等
掌握过去,现在和未来的概念,但不理解所叙述的持续时间

 

社会和情感发展
轮流,共享和协作
口头上表达愤怒而不是肢体方式
可以感受到嫉妒
有时会用说谎来保护自己,但理解说谎的概念
喜欢伪装,具有丰富的想象力

 

育儿提示———4岁儿童


傻傻的,富有想象力,充满活力,你的孩子喜欢尝试新的词汇和新鲜的事物。

•4岁的孩子渴望成人的认可。和提供许多积极正面的鼓励。
显示挂历和模拟时钟,以帮助您的孩子有形象化的时间概念。
玩文字游戏来培养他不断增长的词汇可以使他忽略一些不好的词汇。
创造机会让他去排序,匹配,计算和比较。
提供大量的发挥空间和场合与其他孩子一起玩。
 

                            

                                 岁 儿 童 里 程 碑

一个5岁的是能够更好地解决复杂或抽象的问题,因为他拥有更多的想象力,他会询问更多的更具有分析性的问题。他会更喜欢参与其他儿童的活动,并会更加能够在没有成人的协助下管理自己的感情或解决自己的矛盾。在5岁,大部分时间孩子们通常很容易理解和使用正确的语法。他会在群体中发起一个会话并能更好地参与讨论各种事情。大多数5岁的孩子可以识别和理解这些字母所代表的一个声音。他们可以数20个数并比较数字。他的协调和平衡将已经发展到足以开始学习骑自行车,跳绳。

 

动作发展:总体动作技能
可以以成人的方式跑步
可以踮着脚尖走路,广泛的跳跃
可以在平衡木行走
溜冰,跳绳


动作发展:优秀的动作技能
喜好手工
鞋带鞋(但不能绑)
像大人一样握铅笔
可以在局部之内涂颜色
剪切和粘贴简单的形状

 

 

语言与思维发展
讲流利;正确地使用复数,代词,时态
文字和语言非常感兴趣;求知欲非常强烈
理解和名称的对立面
使用复杂的语言
有时对幻想和现实仍然混淆
思维仍是天真,不会使用成年人的逻辑

 

社会和情感发展

区分对与错,从不诚实到诚实,但无法识别意图
•喜欢
戏剧化妆和自己穿衣
模仿成人,并寻求称赞
寻找玩伴,不喜欢孤独,很重视朋友
与男孩和女孩子一起玩时,但更喜欢和同性别的孩子玩
遵守规则,或许会批评那些谁不的

 

育儿提示———5岁儿童

 

希望有您的合作,随和爱玩的5岁,这就是他如何学习的。

加入基于发展协调性和平衡的活动 - 跳绳和跳跃

走在路边或裂开的人行道上,或爬 树。
通过让您的孩子在杂志中剪切出照片,珠子串,或拆解,放等,来鼓励精细运动技能。

•一起玩玩具。

利用他对数学计算的兴趣教他予取予求使用对象,而不是教简单的加法和减法。
让你的孩子知道他可以为即将到来的事件或活动提前做准备,及未雨绸缪。
帮助他使用词汇来表达自己的情绪:我看你现在是生我的气了

 

 

 

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